Rape a heinous crime and offence

Rape: a heinous crime and offence.

1. When a woman was raped at the time of Prophet peace be upon him.

2. Umar bin al Khattab exonerated a woman who killed her rapist in defence.

3. What Mahmud Ghaznavi did to his own nephew when he raped a woman.

4. Scholars on If a woman kills her rapist in an assault,

a). al Baghwi (433 to 516 AH)

b) Mulla Ali al Qari

c) Ibn Qudamah Hanbali

5. No punishment for the woman who was forced to commit Zina.

1. When a woman was raped at the time of Prophet peace be upon him.

A. Imam at Tirmidhi narrated

Narrated ‘Abdul-Jabbar bin Wa’il bin Hujr:

That his father said: “A woman was forced to commit illegal sexual relations during the time of the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ). The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) did not enforce the legal punishment upon her, but he enforced it upon the one who had done it to her.” And the narrator did not mention him assigning a dowry to her.

Jami` at-Tirmidhi 1453

Imam at-Tirmidhi graded this particular chain to be weak but next hadith is proven according to him, he also said this has been acted upon:

وَالْعَمَلُ عَلَى هَذَا عِنْدَ أَهْلِ الْعِلْمِ مِنْ أَصْحَابِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَغَيْرِهِمْ أَنْ لَيْسَ عَلَى الْمُسْتَكْرَهَةِ حَدٌّ ‏.‏

The practice among the people of knowledge, from the companions of the Prophet (peace be upon him) and others, is that there is no punishment for someone who is forced (r a p e d).

(Jami` at-Tirmidhi 1453)

B). Narrated Wa’il ibn Hujr:

When a woman went out in the time of the Prophet (ﷺ) for prayer, a man attacked her and overpowered (raped) her.

She shouted and he went off, and when a man came by, she said: That (man) did such and such to me. And when a company of the Emigrants came by, she said: That man did such and such to me. They went and seized the man whom they thought had had intercourse with her and brought him to her.

She said: Yes, this is he. Then they brought him to the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ).

When he (the Prophet) was about to pass sentence, the man who (actually) had assaulted her stood up and said: Messenger of Allah, I am the man who did it to her.

He (the Prophet) said to her: Go away, for Allah has forgiven you. But he told the man some good words (AbuDawud said: meaning the man who was seized), and of the man who had had intercourse with her, he said: Stone him to death.

He also said: He has repented to such an extent that if the people of Medina had repented similarly, it would have been accepted from them.

Sunan Abi Dawud 4379

تخریج الحدیث: «‏‏‏‏سنن الترمذی/الحدود 22 (1454)، (تحفة الأشراف: 11770)، وقد أخرجہ: مسند احمد (6/399) (حسن)» ‏‏‏‏

قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى هَذَا حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ غَرِيبٌ صَحِيحٌ ‏

قال الشيخ زبير على زئي: إسناده حسن

مشكوة المصابيح (3572)

أخرجه الترمذي (1454 وسنده حسن)

2. Umar bin al Khattab exonerated a woman who killed her rapist in defence

Abdur Razzaq narrated:

17919 – عَنْ مَعْمَرٍ، عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ، عَنِ الْقَاسِمِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ قَالَ: أَحْسِبُهُ عَنْ عُبَيْدِ بْنِ عُمَيْرٍ قَالَ: اسْتَضَافَ رَجُلٌ نَاسًا مِنْ هُذَيْلٍ، فَأَرْسَلُوا جَارِيَةً لَهُمْ تَحْتَطِبُ، فَأَعْجَبَتِ الضَّيْفَ فَتَبِعَهَا، فَأَرَادَهَا عَلَى نَفْسِهَا، فَامْتَنَعَتْ فَعَارَكَهَا سَاعَةً فَانْفَلَتَتْ مِنْهُ انْفِلَاتَةً، فَرَمَتْهُ بِحَجَرٍ، فَفَضَّتْ كَبِدَهُ فَمَاتَ، ثُمَّ جَاءَتْ إِلَى أَهْلِهَا، فَأَخْبَرَتْهُمْ فَذَهَبَ أَهْلُهَا إِلَى عُمَرَ، فَأَخْبَرُوهُ، فَأَرْسَلَ عُمَرُ، فَوَجَدَ آثَارَهُمَا، فَقَالَ عُمَرُ: «قَتِيلُ اللَّه لَا يُودَى أَبَدًا»، قَالَ الزُّهْرِيُّ: ثُمَّ قَضَتِ الْقُضَاةُ بَعْدُ بِأَنْ يُودَى

`Ubayd ibn `Umayr narrated that a man hosted some people from (the tribe of) Hudayl. They sent a slave woman to fetch some firewood and the host was attracted to her, so he followed her (into the woods) and wanted to have his way with her but she refused. He wrestled with her for a while, until she escaped from him and threw a rock at him and killed him. Her masters went to `Umar and informed him of the situation. `Umar sent investigators who found their tracks and thereafter `Umar said “ No diyah (or qisas – expiation in terms of blood money or etc) is to be paid for the one who was Killed by Allah”

He regarded self defense as a legitimate cause for the slave girl to have shed the blood of that aggressor who wanted to rape her so there would be no qisas or diyah and no expiation was to be offered [because she killed him out of self-defense]

Imam zuhri comments further that later on, all the muslim judges passed similar verdicts on similar instances following suit of umar’s judgement

[Ref: Musannaf abdur razzaq 9/434 H # 17919; Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah 5/439 H# 27793; among others. Scholars have opined rulings based on this under self defense such as in Haawiul Kabeer of the sha’fi madhab by Imam mawardi r.h 13/451 from the blog why the shariah]

3. What Mahmud Ghaznavi did to his own nephew when he raped a woman.

Ibn Kathir said:

وكان عادلا جيدا، اشتكى إليه رجل أن ابن أخت الملك يهجم عليه في داره وعلى أهله في كل وقت، فيخرجه من البيت ويختلي بامرأته، وقد حار في أمره، وكلما اشتكاه لأحد من أولي الأمر لا يجسر أحد عليه خوفا وهيبة للملك.

فلما سمع الملك ذلك غضب غضبا شديدا، وقال للرجل: ويحك متى جاءك فائتني فأعلمني، ولا تسمعن من أحد منعك من الوصول إليّ، ولو جاءك في الليل فائتني فأعلمني.

ثم إن الملك تقدم إلى الحجبة وقال لهم: إن هذا الرجل متى جاءني لا يمنعه أحد من الوصول إليّ من ليل أو نهار، فذهب الرجل مسرورا داعيا، فما كان إلا ليلة أو ليلتان حتى هجم عليه ذلك الشاب فأخرجه من البيت واختلى بأهله، فذهب باكيا إلى دار الملك فقيل له: إن الملك نائم.

فقال: قد تقدم إليكم أن لا أمنع منه ليلا ولا نهارا، فنبهوا الملك فخرج معه بنفسه وليس معه أحد، حتى جاء إلى منزل الرجل فنظر إلى الغلام وهو مع المرأة في فراش واحد، وعندهما شمعة تقد، فتقدم الملك فأطفأ الضوء ثم جاء فاحتز رأس الغلام وقال للرجل: ويحك الحقني بشربة ماء، فأتاه بها فشرب ثم انطلق الملك ليذهب، فقال له الرجل: بالله لم أطفأت الشمعة؟

قال: ويحك إنه ابن أختي، وإني كرهت أن أشاهده حال الذبح.

فقال: ولم طلبت الماء سريعا؟

فقال الملك: إني آليت على نفسي منذ أخبرتني أن لا أطعم طعاما ولا أشرب شرابا حتى أنصرك، وأقوم بحقك، فكنت عطشانا هذه الأيام كلها، حتى كان ما كان مما رأيت.

فدعا له الرجل وانصرف الملك راجعا إلى منزله ولم يشعر بذلك أحد.

He was extremely Just.

A Man came to him complaining that your nephew visits his house and kicks him out and remain with his wife.. And whenever he asked the authorities to do something they would not do something due to the fear of king (i.e. Mahmud). Mahmud said, if he comes again come to me and don’t listen to anyone if someone stops you whether its day or night.

The king went to his janitors saying if he comes then let him come to me… After one or two nights that man came to his house and kicked him out and remained with his wife. He came to the king crying, he was stopped by the janitors because the king was sleeping. He said you were ordered to get me in whether day or night. They asked the King and he came with the man alone until reached his house. He saw that the young man is with the wife of the man on the same bed and there is a candle near it.

The king turned off the candle and cut the boys head. And asked the man to give him some water.

When he was returning back The Man asked him tell me why did you turned the candle off? he replied He was my nephew and i don’t like to see him while killing him. The Man asked why have you asked for water? he replied i took an oath i will not drink or eat until i help you. I am thirsty from the day you have informed me (i.e. 2 nights) until you have seen what happened. The man prayed for him and he went away.

[al Bidaya wal Nihaya vol 12 under what happened in 421h

4. Scholars on If a woman kills her rapist in an assault.

a). al Baghwi (433 to 516 AH) said:

وَكَذَلِكَ لَوْ قَصَدَ رَجُلٌ الْفُجُورَ بِامْرَأَةٍ، فَدَفَعَتْهُ عَنْ نَفْسِهَا، فَقَتَلَتْهُ لَا شَيْءَ عَلَيْهَا، رُفِعَ إِلَى عُمَرَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ جَارِيَةً كَانَتْ تَحْتَطِبُ، فَاتَّبَعَهَا رَجُلٌ، فَرَاوَدَهَا عَنْ نَفْسِهَا، فَرَمَتْهُ بِفِهْرٍ، أَوْ حَجَرٍ فَقَتَلَتْهُ، فَقَالَ عُمَرُ: «هَذَا قَتِيلُ اللَّهِ، وَاللَّهِ لَا يُودَى أَبَدًا».

وَعَلَى هَذَا الْقِيَاسِ لَوْ قَصَدَتْ بَهِيمَةٌ رَجُلا، فَقَتَلَهَا فِي الدَّفْعِ، لَا ضَمَانَ عَلَى الدَّافِعِ عِنْدَ الأَكْثَرِينَ، وَهُوَ قَوْلُ الشَّافِعِيِّ،

If a man forcefully tries to have illegal sex with a woman and she prevents him from her and kills him then there is nothing (i.e. no sin or qisaas) on her. It is related from Umar a man wanted [to rape] a woman, so she threw a rock at him and killed him. ‘Umar said, ‘ Allah killed him, By Allaah, there is no diyah for him ever’ i.e., she did not have to pay the ‘blood money’ for him… This is also the saying of al Shafiee.[Sharah al Sunnah 10/252]

b) Mulla Ali al Qari hanafi mentioned similarly. [Mirqaat al Mafateeh under 3511]

c) Ibn Qudaamah al-Hanbali mentioned:

“Concerning a woman who was pursued by a man, and she killed him to protect herself, Ahmad said: ‘If she knew that he wanted [to rape] her, and she killed him to protect herself, then she is not at fault.’ Ahmad mentioned the hadeeth which al-Zuhri reported from al-Qaasim ibn Muhammad, from ‘Ubayd ibn ‘Umayr, in which it said that a man had visitors from [the tribe of] Hudhayl, and he wanted [to rape] a woman, so she threw a rock at him and killed him. ‘Umar said, ‘By Allaah, there is no diyah for him ever’ i.e., she did not have to pay the ‘blood money’ for him. If it is permissible to defend one’s money, which one can give away, then a woman defending and protecting herself and her honour which cannot be given away, is clearly more permissible than a man defending his money. If this is clear, then she is obliged to defend herself if she can, because letting someone overpower her [rape her] is haraam, and by not defending herself, she lets him overpower her.” [al-Mughni 8/331 taken from islamqa]

5. No punishment for the woman who was forced to commit Zina.

a) It is narrated by al Bayhaqi

أتى عمر بن الخطاب رضى الله عنه بامرأة جهدها العطش فمرت على راع فاستسقت فأبى أن يسقيها إلا أن تمكنه من نفسها ففعلت فشاور الناس في رجمها فقال علي رضى الله عنه : هذه مضطرة أرى أن تخلي سبيلها ففعل

“‘A woman was brought to ‘Umar bin al Khattab May Allah be pleased with him who had been extremely thirsty, and had passed by a shepherd and asked him to give her something to drink; he had refused to give her something to drink unless she let him have his way with her. [‘Umar] consulted with the people as to whether he should have her stoned. ‘Ali May Allah be pleased with him said, ‘She was forced to do it, you should let her go.’ So he did so.” [Sunah al Bayhaqi ( 8 / 236 ). Shaykh al Albani said: “Authentic” in Irwa al Ghaleel 7/341 no. 2313, Islamqa]

b) Ibn Qayyim commented:

قلت : والعمل على هذا ، لو اضطرت المرأة إلى طعام أو شراب عند رجل فمنعها إلا بنفسها ، وخافت الهلاك ، فمكنته من نفسها فلا حد عليها .

I say: this is what should be done. If a woman is in desperate need of food and drink from a man, which he will not give her unless she lets him have his way with her, and she is scared that she will die without them, so she lets him have his way with her, then she is not to be punished. [al-Turuq al-Hukmiyyah, 18, Islamqa 4017]

c). Shaykh al Albani presented another narration, Narrated by Waail bin Hujr ra:

استكرهت امرأة على عهد النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فدرأ عنها الحد

A woman deflowered forcefully at the time of Prophet peace be upon him, He (peace be upon him) left her. [Shaykh al Albani said: in Irwa al Ghaleel 7/341 no. 2313, Its a weak chain as al Bayhaqi’s comments are quoted by him, but he provided it to support the narration of Umar and Ali quoted above]

d). Naaf`e also narrated that

أن رجلا أصاب أهل بيت فاستكره منهم امرأ ة فرفع ذلك إلى أبي بكر فضربه ونفاه ولم يضرب المرأة )

A Man gripped a woman among the ahlul bayt and deflowered by force against her will, He was presented to Abu Bakr and he Punished him and exiled him, he did not punish the woman. [Ibn Abi Shayba 11 / 68 /1 , Shaykh al Albani said: The chain of narrators are trustworthy who are narrators of Bukhari and Muslim but it is Munqata because Naf`e did not see Abu Bakr as-Siddeeq Ra, Irwa al Ghaleel 7/342 no. 2313]

e). Imam Bukhari said:

باب إذا استكرهت المرأة على الزنا فلا حد عليها في قوله تعالى ومن يكرههن فإن الله من بعد إكراههن غفور رحيم وقال الليث حدثني نافع أن صفية بنت أبي عبيد أخبرته أن عبدا من رقيق الإمارة وقع على وليدة من الخمس فاستكرهها حتى اقتضها فجلده عمر الحد ونفاه ولم يجلد الوليدة من أجل أنه استكرهها

If a woman is compelled to commit illegal sexual intercourse against her will, There is no Punishment for her, as Allah says ” And if someone should compel them, then indeed, Allah is [to them], after their compulsion, Forgiving and Merciful.” [an Nur verse 33] Layth narrated from Naaf`e who said, Safiyya bint ‘Ubaid said

“A governmental male-slave tried to seduce a slave-girl from the Khumus of the war booty till he deflowered her by force against her will; therefore ‘Umar flogged him according to the law, and exiled him, but he did not flog the female slave because the male-slave had committed illegal sexual intercourse by force, against her will.” [Sahih al-Bukhari 6949]

f) Ibn Hajr commented:

قوله : ( وقال الليث ) هو ابن سعد ( حدثني نافع ) هو مولى ابن عمر .

قوله : ( أن صفية بنت أبي عبيد أخبرته ) يعني الثقفية امرأة عبد الله بن عمر .

قوله : ( أن عبدا من رقيق الإمارة ) بكسر الألف أي من مال الخليفة وهو عمر .

قوله : ( وقع على وليدة من الخمس ) أي من مال خمس الغنيمة الذي يتعلق التصرف فيه بالإمام ، والمراد زنى بها .

قوله : ( فاستكرهها حتى اقتضها ) بقاف وضاد معجمة مأخوذ من القضة وهي عذرة البكر ، وهذا يدل على أنها كانت بكرا .

قوله : ( فجلده عمر الحد ونفاه ) أي جلده خمسين جلدة ونفاه نصف سنة ، لأن حده نصف حد الحر ، ويستفاد منه أن عمر كان يرى أن الرقيق ينفى كالحر ، وقد تقدم البحث فيه في الحدود .

وقوله : ” لم يجلد الوليدة لأنه استكرهها ” لم أقف على اسم واحد منهما . وهذا الأثر وصله أبو القاسم البغوي عن العلاء بن موسى عن الليث بمثله سواء ، ووقع لي عاليا جدا بيني وبين صاحب الليث فيه سبعة أنفس بالسماع المتصل في أزيد من ستمائة سنة ، قرأته على محمد بن الحسن بن عبد الرحيم الدقاق عن أحمد بن نعمة سماعا أنبأنا أبو المنجا بن عمر أنبأنا أبو الوقت أنبأنا محمد بن عبد العزيز أنبأنا عبد الرحمن بن أبي شريح أنبأنا البغوي فذكره

(Layth) is Ibn Sa`d, (Naaf`e) is the freed slave of Ibn Umar.

(Safiyya bint ‘Ubaid) was wife of Abdullah bin Umar…

(Safiyya said the slave man deflowered the female slave by force) with Qaaf and Duaad, meaning broke her hymen, this is a proof that she was a virgin.

(‘Umar flogged him according to the law, and exiled him) He flogged him 50 times, and exiled him for 6 months because the punishment of slave is half of the free man. This is a proof that according to Umar ra, slave man will also be exiled like a free man, as it is mentioned already in Kitab al Hudood.

(he did not flog the female slave) I could not find her name,This athar is mentioned by Abul Qasim al Baghwi from al Ala bin Musa from Layth. This athar has reached me through very Aali chain that also with clear hearing and only eight people are between me and al Baghwi, even though he died more than 600 years before me. (Then he narrated this story through his chain by saying), I read it to Muhammad bin al Hasan bin Abdul Raheem ad-Daqqaq who heard it from Ahmad bin Nem`ah, Who said: Abul Manja bin Umar told us, who said: Abul Waqt told us, who said: Muhammad bin Abdul Aziz told us, who said: Abdul Rahman bin abi Shareeh told us, Who from al Baghwi who narrated this. [Fath al Bari under the hadith 6949]